On June 27, 1950, President Truman makes the statement asking the United Nations and the Security Council to review the violations of the Charter of the United Nations by North Korea to determine the necessity for war. According to James Stokesbury in his work entitled "A Short History of the Korean War", "In response to this, American planes and ships were soon in action over and around the Korean peninsula followed by ground forces. The United Nations peace action - for it was never declared to be a war - suddenly began and lasted three years and one month until July 1953. The sides were divided up as follows: The Republic of Korea, the U.S. and 17 members of the United Nations against North Korea, Communist China, and advisers from Soviet Russia. Billions of dollars were spent, hundreds of lives sacrificed with ambiguous results."